Photosynthesis is a process by which plants, protests, and some bacteria use energy from the sunlight to produce sugar. This sugar is the broken down into a substance called ATP through the process of cellular respiration. The conversion of unusable sunlight energy into usable chemical energy is made possible through the actions of the green pigment found in plants. This green pigment is called chlorophyll and it absorbs the sunlight and converts it into usable chemical energy. It is also the pigment that lives plants their green color, even though it is said that plants are not really green but rather a reflection of the color that it does not absorb.

The main source for this process is sunlight and the end products are oxygen and carbohydrates. There are two stages to this process which are light dependent reactions and the light independent reactions. In the first stage, the energy is captured and used to make high energy molecules. In the second stage, which is also called the Calvin-Benson cycle, the high energy molecules are used to capture the carbon dioxide and make the precursors of carbohydrates. In the light dependent reactions chlorophyll absorbs one photon ad loses one electron while in the light independent reactions the enzyme RuBisCo captures carbon dioxide which undergo a process that creates three-carbon sugars