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Mutation is a change in the sequence of DNA. The changes are brought upon DNA by either chemical effects of the environment, such as sunlight expsoure and radioactivity, or by actul fault of the reproductive mechanisms during DNA replication. DNA has the ability to fix ourselves, but at certain cases it is impossible to fix certain mutations. Some mutations can even be hereditary, meaning they get passed down from parents to childen. These genetic mutations are the cause of some hereditary diseases such as Cystic Fibrosis (refer to the Cystic Fibrosis wiki page for more information).

There are several types of genetic mutations. In a point mutation, one nucleotide base is changed. In a frame-shift mutation, bases are either inserted or deleted. As the name deletion shows, the deletion mutation deletes one or more nucleotide base. In an insertition mutation, random bases are inserted. Last but no least, in an inverstion mutation, a part of a DNA sequence is reversed. Everytime the genetic sequence changes, the directions change also and different tasks will be carried out.
Mutation Name
Example
No mutation
The fat cat ate the wee rat.
Point
The fat mat ate the wee rat.
Frame-Shift mutation
The fat caa tet hew eer at..
Deletion
The fat cat ate the rat.
Insertion
The fat cat ated the rat.
Inversion
The fat cat ate kdk eir.

This chart shows the effect of a mutation on a sequence. The simple sentence represents a DNA code with each letter representing a nucleotide.

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